Ulmer Maserholzpfeifen by Rainer Immensack

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Ulmer Maserholzpfeifen (Ulm burl wood pipes)

Rainer Immensack

This is an automatic translation!
Thus it cannot be more than a first draft.
It's full of errors and misunderstandings.
Machines are dumb ..

The Ulmer Maserholzpfeifen will be of particular interest to collectors when they have a specimen in their hand. These root pipes have their own character, if only because of the restlessly structured wood. The pores are of different sizes and the wood is heavy, similar to beech or oak. The decoration of these pipe bowls are the silver decorations. There is very little literature on the Ulm pipe, which is so important and popular among collectors. As a rule, this type of pipe is only touched on in passing in many books. But there are two monographs that deal exclusively with this topic: One of the main works is the book by Adolf Häberle from 1950, whereby the pipe is only one of several other tobacco topics. The second work is the beautifully illustrated book by Anton Manger, in which he illustrated a large part of his outstanding collection.[1]

The beginnings of pipe production in Ulm

When we talk about pipes from Ulm, we are not only referring to today's urban area of ​​Ulm. The name refers to the formerly very large state of Ulm, which stretched from Göppingen to Günzburg and from the heights of Heidenheim / Brenz to below Neu-Ulm and expanded in a west-east and north-south direction of about 30 km. The state of Ulm was created in the period between 1377-1399; until 1571 the city acquired even larger areas of land, probably due to its wealth created by the textile industry. In 1396 Geislingen an der Steige and Helfenstein Castle as well as 26 other villages in the Ulmer Alb were added.[2] This is important because in the state of Ulm pipemakers are mentioned who started on 22 May 1695 submitted an application to the city to be allowed to sell their products in Ulm.

In the earliest document about the pipe makers in the State of Ulm, two craftsmen reported to the council: "We started making wooden tobacco pipes several years ago and covering them with white and yellow sheet metal."[3] The two of them applied for a regulation for the pipe making and wanted to be recognized as a guild, which means that their direct sales Products to ensure the city would have been. The motivation for this new branch of business was the great hardship of the Kübler and cloth makers in the country, because the competition between them became so great that many journeymen and masters no longer had enough work and switched to other trades. The request was rejected on July 31, 1695 by the city council of Ulm because the tobacco pipe manufacturers neither learned nor hiked this craft. Nobody is allowed to have two trades next to each other.

Twenty years later (1715) the Geislingers tried to get out of the "unguild trade": "We are now 50 pipe makers and want to become our own guild," they demanded self-confidently[4]. On February 20, 1716, the city council also rejected this request, which meant that pipe making remained a free trade that was often only operated as a sideline. "In contrast to the guild trades, the free trades therefore had neither a master craftsman's license nor an apprenticeship or journeyman period; but above all no restrictions on the number of employees."[5]

The council's decision makes it clear how severe the restrictions imposed by the guild rules were. The guild regulations stipulated that only the last person working on the product was allowed to sell the product. A city council protocol of August 17, 1824 also regulates the ban on trade in pipe tubes for pipe and comb makers on the basis of a complaint by horn turners. Only the Nadler, Säckler and Gürtler[6] received permission to trade in pipe tubes, but not the pipe makers themselves. The background to these skirmishes among the craftsmen was the strong regulation on the part of the city of Ulm and the lack of work. The authorities wanted to use so-called tax regulations to prevent the competition among craftsmen from worsening.[7]

The changes in the work situation also affected the weavers and Danube boatmen, whose other earnings included earning extra income as a part-time job, and who therefore also dealt with pipe-making.[8] The pipe production itself was not the main cargo for boaters traveling down the Danube. This is made clear by a list of the most frequently transported loads of tobacco, beer, woolen goods, oil, brandy, iron goods, leather, linseed oil and tinder.[9] Ulm was the storage area for the " Ulmer Zillen ", which were also called" Ulmer Schachteln ". These barges were up to 4 m wide and 20 m long flat bow ships that sailed down the Danube to Vienna. Up to around 1900 up to 4 ships a week with merchant goods were sent on their voyages.[10] As a rule, the ships built in Ulm were resold to dealers in Vienna, who then processed them into firewood. Pulling back to Ulm, the so-called towing, would have been too expensive.[11] This also explains that the flow of goods on the river was mainly in one direction - downstream.

This aspect is important because Ulm used a large amount of burl wood for pipe production. Material was probably brought in from the foothills of the Alps via the Iller. Sarrazin quotes a source from 1488, according to which Ulm received its wood from the Iller, and various goods from the Danube.[12] This formulation allows both conclusions: wood came from the Iller from the Alpine foothills and possibly also with horse power; raised, grained grain wood from Austria, Hungary and maybe also Turkey.

The situation in the 19th century

Pipe production declined continuously from 1840 onwards. The reason was the advent of cheap porcelain pipes, especially from Meissen, and probably also the increasingly elaborately carved meerschaum pipes. Another reason was the widespread use of cigars from 1850 onwards.

In 1870 there were only three pipe makers in the city of Ulm: Leonhard Eberle in Radgasse and Xaver Reismiller in Kronengasse, another source mentions Friedrich Notz in Glöcklesgraben.[13] A further decline in production is mentioned in the same source on the difficulty of obtaining roots of alder and juniper from 1880.

In the Ulm address book from 1894, the Eduard Lohmüller grocer sells men's underwear as well as "Real Ulmer burl pipes" in an advertisement. In the same issue, the company Gebrüder Kunst in Platzgasse advertises in a full-page advertisement with the information that it sells Ulm burl pipes, carries out repairs and sells individual parts cheaply. In the years 1896 and 1902 the Ulm address book of tobacco pipe manufacturers and activities mentioned:

  • Haas, Heinrich, Engelgasse 1,
  • Art, Brothers, Herrenkellergasse 1,
  • Letsch, Jakob, Sterngasse 13,
  • Lohmüller, Ed., Hirschstr. 24,
  • Oettinger, Brothers, Sattlergasse 16,
  • Silberhorn J., successor: A. Blumhardt, Hafengasse 12,
  • Staudenmayer, Gustav, Herdbruckerstr. 5.[14]

It is more likely to have been dealers than manufacturers. The situation is different with the advertisement by J. Silberhorn, in which other woodturned goods are offered in addition to pipes; it could really have been a manufacturing company.[15] What is particularly nice about this advertisement is that Silberhorn shows two cocks with beautiful chains. The company Kunst can also be counted among the pipe makers, as they advertised their Ulm enamel pipes in the magazine "Jugend" in 1902 - but there was no longer any mention of the burl wood pipes.[16]

The assumption that these are the last two pipe makers in Ulm is reinforced by information from Friedrich Becker, who only mentions two producers in 1878: Johannes Silberhorn, Hafengasse 97, and his son Stefan Silberhorn. In 1883, after Becker, it was Johannes Silberhorn and the brothers Kunst.[17] The name of the pipe-turner Otto Staiger occasionally appears in literature, who is probably the last person in Ulm to produce pipes Made one-off production. He probably also knew very well how to recreate the beautiful leg balls with the sparrow and the saying: "I am from Ulm". The pieces produced remained isolated cases, however, and Staiger died in the Second World War while working as a fire fighter in Ulm.[18]

The wood for the Ulm pipes

The so-called "burl wood" was used to make the Ulm pipes. The "measles" are always root wood. Depending on the type of wood, these knotty tubers provide the coveted, flame-retardant wood for pipe production.[19] Most people from Ulm were cautious of soft, flammable wood The cock lined with sheet metal, not only in the tobacco kettle, but also in the smoke pipe of the pipe. In a basic work for the Ulm pipe production from 1830, suitable types of wood are named: the rough and the smooth elm, the ash, the common and the white alder, the birch, the white poplar, the common poplar, the maple, the Norway maple, the juniper, the rowan, the black elder, the buckthorn, the walnut and the box.[20]

The wood for the pipe makers in the state of Ulm was sold by "Maserhauer", ie burl wood collectors. A Bavarian newspaper from 1816 contains evidence of this: “When Ulm and its surroundings were under Bavarian sovereignty [1803-1810, the author], the goods carriers also came from across the Inn and were immediately on the southern stretch of the Sim- Sees with those Erlen Maaser, which is an excellent material for this type of pipe bowl.”[21]

The origin of the burl wood is diverse. There are indications that boxwood came in large quantities from Turkey, while "Gypsy gangs from Hungary, Romania and other Danube countries" were named as suppliers for the wood in the Schwabenspiegel of 1928.[22] There it also says that many pipe makers have employed their own suppliers who supplied wood from Bavaria, Württemberg and the Bohemian forests. Bohemian wood was particularly famous in 1830. In another source, Switzerland and Tyrol are named as the countries of origin for the burl wood.[23]

It would be wrong to assume that the burl wood is solely from the occurrences of willow, alder and other woods from the Danube meadows, among others near Neu Ulm-Pfuhl. These deposits may initially have been sufficient for a small-scale production, but if there were 50 pipe makers in Geislingen in 1715 (see above), the raw material had to be bought up from a wide area. In addition, during the heyday of pipe production in Ulm between 1735 and 1840, everything that was possible was used in root wood. Qualitative aspects also played a major role, as the following quote makes clear, in which it is a question of whether a buyer has to fear a putty, i.e. a damaged area: "But one does not have to fear such fraud from the Ulm manufacturers, at least they draw attention to such errors and prefer to sell heads provided with them at cheaper prices, since they strive to maintain their old, long-standing fame and will also keep it."[24]

In spite of everything, the procurement of suitable root wood was a constant problem, and the efforts of the masons to keep supplying new root wood for their clients resulted in damage to the forests. The masons did not limit themselves to digging up the roots of dead trunks, but felled trees to get fresh and easy-to-work roots, which should also have brought in more money. This "forest crime" was criticized in the Württemberg forest regulations of the 18th and 19th centuries. In a decree of the Württemberg Ministry of Finance from the end of the 18th century. the foresters were instructed not to tolerate this overexploitation in the forests around Waldstetten and Rechberg, i.e. in the Ellwang area, any longer.[25]

The shapes of the pipes

The Ulm pipes differ in two basic forms: the Hungarian shape and the Ulm cock. The Hungarian shape is a narrow, tall pipe kettle that extends far beyond the neck with the opening for the pipe; the head usually always has a flat, usually decorated lid to cover the embers. The classic Ulmer Kloben is a special type of Hungarian head with a widened, downwardly tapering wooden ridge that runs along the front and the bottom. The bowl and neck are usually at the same level. The lid of the block is usually shaped like a helmet or a dome and is often perforated to allow air to enter. With both forms, the smoke pipe and the pipe bowl are often connected by a chain for security and decoration. The so-called Erbsketten, which were usually attached twice to the pipe ("Doppelerbsketten"), were particularly popular.

Helmut Aschenbrenner expressed a very interesting aspect about the development of Ulm cocks: "In the opinion of some trade historians, the head of the Ulm [pipes] is partly a replica of certain helmets, namely the balaclavas of the 16th century ... If you cover the upper two thirds , then you actually have something like a balaclava (front view) in front of you. The helmet-like can also be seen very clearly if you turn the side image of a pipe upside down and cover the exposed parts of the head and neck. "[26]

The similarity to historical balaclavas is indeed striking when the two objects are compared directly. Ulm had been a bastion and an important military base since 1605, which was expanded into a federal fortress in 1850. The many bastions and fortresses are still characteristic of the Ulm cityscape. It is reasonable to assume that the soldiers were an important customer group and wanted a specific pipe shape. If the weaver Jakob Glöckle claims to have discovered the Ulm cock shape in the city of Ulm in 1735,[27] then it could be assumed that he initially did this as a commissioned work for a soldier. The new shape, based on a helmet, can quickly have become very popular in military circles and was not only taken up and further developed by its alleged inventor Jakob Glöckle, but also by many other pipe carvers. And even if simple soldiers, in contrast to the higher ranks, lacked the financial means, they could carve such pipe bowls themselves.

The Ulm pipes were not only smoked by the military, but in all classes and classes. There are pictures of farmers smoking their burl wood pipes in celebration of the day. The carving of the pipes was very different. There are pipes with hunting scenes, others show openwork, three-dimensional carvings that required weeks of processing. These works are often so fine that even on a square centimeter several details can be determined. These carvings were made individually as commissioned work and in some cases were refined with silver work.

Around 1840 114 types of pipe bowls were manufactured in Ulm, mostly Hungarian-shaped pipes.[28] These include i.a. contemporary images close: In the Pfennig magazine from 1835 a workshop scene was printed where 14 Hungarian heads alone were hanging in the window of the small pipe-making workshop. The sample sheet by Johann Leibinger from 1820 shows ten Hungarian-shaped pipes and only two with the classic cock shape.[29]

A special shape of the Ulm pipes is the so-called Pfuelere, a shape that was made in the Pfuhl district of today's district of Neu-Ulm. An exhibition shown in 1987 was dedicated to this production site, which is likely to have only gained local to regional awareness.[30]

By around 1995, the Hessian company Schum in Bad König in the Odenwald had brought out various shapes of Ulm pipes. However, these were made much simpler and the lid was mostly made of nickel silver.

The silver work

The focus of all silver work for the Ulm pipe is the lid: the Hungarian shape is mostly flat, and shell-like grooves predominate in the lid, while the bell has a helmet shape and is often open with floral designs and, depending on the quality, richly decorated. The tip of this helmet cover is almost always stepped.

A special shape of the lid is the replica of a Bavarian caterpillar helmet. This type of helmet can also have served as a model for the shape of the pipe bowl; In the silver outfit, the caterpillar helmet is clearly recognizable as a model. This type of helmet was introduced to the Bavarian army from 1800 and was considered a symbol in Ulm for the occupation by the Bavarians from 1802–1810.[31] The use of the caterpillar helmet supports the author's assumption that the Ulm cocks could have been mementos of the (Bavarian) soldiers stationed in Ulm, similar to the reservist whistles that appeared later.

Another special form of this silver work are double lids in which a second level is incorporated. This enabled the owner to incorporate personal status symbols or motifs of his profession. In addition, this valuable double lid enhances the simpler shape of the cock. There are lids with monograms, teams of oxen, chamois rams, a blacksmith on the anvil or a locksmith who makes a bowl.[32]

What is striking about the pipes known to the author is that the number 13 is repeatedly stamped on the edge of the lid, which stands for the silver content of the metal. There are only a few pipes that show a manufacturer's hallmark, although Manger says that "most of the lids should have a hallmark".[33]

The silver work was only made to a small extent in the state of Ulm itself, but the orders for this went as far as Blaubeuren, Heilbronn and Schwäbisch-Gmünd; to the latter city mainly because of the copper and tombac processing that is located there. The influence of Schwäbisch-Gmünd was enormous, especially for the pipe production in Waldstetten and Rechberg. It can be assumed that a lot of metal fittings came to Ulm from there.

Similar to the supply of wood, pipe makers in the Ulmer Land employed cheap labor elsewhere. In 1829 silver workers worked in Blaubeuren, Heilbronn and Schwäbisch-Gmünd as employees of the pipe makers Martin and Johannes Leibinger in Ulm. On the other hand, the Ulm goldsmiths, together with the turners, brought an action against the two Leibingers at the city council. The accused claimed, however, that the council decree of 1790 gave them the right to manufacture whole pipes. The council decided that the brothers should have the right to sell any pipes ordered from outside, including those made with other people's silver work. However, the pipes from Ulm and the Ulmer Land had to be shod by Ulm goldsmiths. In 1829 the Leibingers got a license as a factory and the restrictions of the guild system no longer affected them.[34] The incident also shows how complicated guild law was within the city of Ulm, and it made sense to look for alternatives.

The pipe makers

The weaver Jakob Glöckle in Ulm was named as the inventor of the classic cock shape very early in the literature (1830), who, like many other residents, carved pipes as a sideline.[35] Because it is not exactly known As to which forms were previously produced, it can be assumed that the form was actually made in Ulm. The fact that the inventor was only supposed to have been a part-time pipe maker may illustrate the difficult economic situation in which the pipe maker trade was.

It can be assumed that the significance of this sideline was rather low. There was no factory production of pipes, although the number of pipe makers grew considerably over the years: Walter Morgenroth listed 21 pipe makers from 1790 to 1830, and Häberle named up to 45 pipe makers for the years 1797 to 1812.36 [36] Johannes Molfenter must have had a particularly prominent position among these pipe makers, who is known as a particularly skilled manufacturer between 1770 and 1812.[37]

There are isolated information about the size of a workshop. In 1790, Martin Leibinger employed eleven workers at home and abroad: pipe maker Schill (father and son), Staib in Langenau, Schwarzkopf with siblings in Rechberg and Josef Schnee in Braunhöfle near Rechberg. His brother Johannes employed twelve workers and eight men abroad: the three Baumhauer brothers on the Rechberg, Konrad Rupp with two brothers and in Söflingen Philipp Speidel with journeymen. Five men also worked for the two Leibingers in the woods and procured the burl wood.[38] The total number of people working full-time in the pipe-making trade was between 1797 and 1812 only 40–45 citizens.[39] This refers to 14 foremen and their employees. The number of people who also did pipe-making as a sideline, however, may have been much higher.

A special regional aspect should be mentioned: In the Ulm district of Söflingen there were also pipe makers from around 1800. The first was Carl Nuding.[40] The origin of the family lies in Rechberg, today's district of Waldstetten, where pipe production is documented as early as 1700, and therefore very early. 41 [41]

Sales

The fierce disputes between the guilds in Ulm show that there was no uniform and in today's sense organized distribution. The exchange of raw materials for cocks and rosaries is documented in 1816.[42] It was also common for pipe makers to move their products directly into town or across the country, as it is known from the pipe makers in the Rhön and Ruhla.[43]

In Ulm itself the shopkeepers, the silversmiths as well as the needlers and belters had the right to sell the finished pipes. According to guild law, the manufacture of the smoke pipes was reserved for the turner, but the decoration of the pipes with silver fittings was reserved for gold and silversmiths. The pipe makers were not allowed to sell their pipes themselves, because the pipe pipe was made by proper craftsmen and was considered a "junk item". Direct sale was not allowed until 1828, following a complaint from the Ulm pipe maker.[44] About a third of the pipes remained in Ulm and the Ulmer Land, while the main part of the production went to Austria , Bavaria, Baden, Alsace and Switzerland went.[45] The Danube boatmen with their barges played an equally important role as did the land trade. It is assumed that not all of the exported pipes were finished pipes.

Collecting burl wood pipes from Ulm

Ulm wooden pipes are now an object for collectors who have a weakness for good workmanship. Not only the wood, but also the silver fittings testify to an outstanding craftsmanship. Due to the high manufacturing costs of the Ulm pipes and the prices associated with them, the Ulm pipe was already a status symbol in its time. The more lush the silver fittings and the carvings, the more valuable the piece was and is.

"Each pipe is only worth what a collector is willing to pay for it," writes Manger in his chapter on the value of Ulm pipes.[46]

As a long-time collector of Ulm pipes, the author would like to make a few recommendations from his point of view.

As a wooden pipe, the Ulm pipe is rather simple and not as "spectacular" as beautifully painted porcelain pipes or finely carved meerschaum pipes. A fundamentally positive attitude towards this rather rustic pipe is therefore necessary. Whoever has this love will be surprised at the wealth that the pipes offer. Not every Ulm that looks like an Ulmer must have been made in the Ulmer Land. A nice example of this are the very popular "dolphin pipes" that do not have to come from Ulm. There are indications that they could have been made in Ansbach / Franconia.[47]

The second important criterion for the value of a pipe is the silver mounting of the lid. The more complex a job, the higher the value. A pipe that bears a silver hallmark or whose work is very finely chiselled also gains in value. Motifs depicting craft scenarios are of course more sought-after by collectors than purely hunting motifs, which, however, are the exception with Ulm pipes. Great caution is advised when it comes to silver decorations on the heads themselves. Some of these silver shapes are still poured today and every simple Ulm can be "refined" in this way in retrospect in order to achieve significantly higher prices.[48] It is also questionable whether the short nails with which the fitting was attached might not have damaged the valuable grain wood too much. However, technical reasons could indicate that any damaged areas were covered with the silver fittings. Another reason may be the need for recognition of the first owner to want to distinguish himself from other smokers of the cheaper pipes in the shape of a piston.

Today, the value is mainly determined using the appropriate or inappropriate smoke pipe. A pipe with a matching smoke pipe is rated significantly higher than a head alone. The assessment of whether a pipe is suitable or not, however, is often subjective. It can be assumed that even the pipe makers often did not know which pipes were being assembled by the woodturners. Even over the years, different smokers and collectors may have changed or renewed the pipe pipes. For French pipes the term "en suite" has become common when a pipe has a matching shaft. This ensemble effect is extremely rare with the Ulm pipes. It is sometimes adventurous to see which stiles are mounted on Ulm pipes these days. The Vistula pipe so popular with other pipe bowls is almost always wrong. Antler inserts have also not been used so lavishly. It is different with turned horn pieces. If these are elaborately provided with grooves or carved decor, then they can be viewed more as original smoke tubes.

Matching Ulmer Holme can have a black and white contrast, which was also achieved by mother-of-pearl inlays or silver nails. Original horn mouthpieces often have up to 25 bite lines, which were not so common later on.

A special feature are the bright bone balls integrated into the pipe tube, which were sometimes decorated with motifs from Ulm: The Ulm sparrow with a straw can be seen or a heavily loaded Ulm freight wagon. Sometimes it says "I'm from Ulm" or "I'm from Ulm". The author has not yet encountered the variant "I bi vo Ulm" mentioned in the literature, but the Manger49 collection contains a[49] a pipe with a leg ring and the inscription " I come from Ulm ".

Ulm pipes often have a wooden stamp of the pipe maker with the black and white city coat of arms. Wooden stamps from ML (Martin Leibinger) or CN (Christian Nuding) are quite common.

A special chapter with the burl wood pipes are the putty. The pipe maker was always happy when he had cut the root wood and held it after the finishing work. In order to still be able to sell the valuable wood in the event of minor damage, it made sense to eliminate the weak points by polishing and staining. This advice was particularly numerous in the standard work for the Ulm pipe makers, where the post-treatment of the raw wood with grinding, polishing and post-treatment is described on over 40 pages.[50]

Unprinted sources

  • Becker, Friedrich: Stammbaum der Söflinger Pfeifenmacher-Familie Nuding. Unveröffentliches Manuskript vom Februar 1966 im Bestand des Stadtarchivs Ulm, Sign. 320/60. Stadtarchiv Ulm, Sign. 774/13 Nr. 8.
  • Buck, Anton: Ortschronik Waldstetten. Reihe D/Band III. Waldstetten 1978.
  • Unveröffentliches Dokument

Literature

  • Address book of the city of Ulm 1894. Ulm 1894.
  • Address book of the city of Ulm 1896. Ulm 1896
  • Address book of the city of Ulm 1902. Ulm 1902.
  • Anonym: Die Fabrikation der Rauchtabackpfeifen aus Holzmasern, Meerschaum,Thon- und Türkenerde und der Chemischen Feuerzeuge. Nebst Unterricht beim beschlagen, Einkauf, Anrauchen, Behandeln der Pfeifenköpfe. Ulm 1830.
  • Anonym: Die Ulmer Pfeifenmaserköpfe. In: Ulmer Zeitung vom 19. Dezember 1933.
  • Anonym: Ueber das Sammeln des Holzes zu Ulmer Pfeifenköpfen. In: Wöchentlicher * Anzeiger für Kunst und Gewerbefleiß im Königreich Baiern. München 1816, S. 327.
  • Anonym: Auf den Spuren einer Pfuelere. In: Neu-Ulmer Zeitung vom 31. August 1987.
  • Aschenbrenner, Helmut: Ulmer Pfeifen. In: Pfeife und Feuerzeug Jahrgang 1965, H. 12, S. 9 ff.
  • Becker, Friedrich: Blauer Dunst aus Ulmer Pfeifen – Vom Tabakrauchen und Pfeifenmachern. In: Ulmer Forum. H. 66/1983, S. 35
  • Dieterich, Michael: Beschreibung der Stadt Ulm. Ulm 1825.
  • Güthlein, Hans: Die Sammlung von Tabakspfeifen im Feuchtwanger Heimatmuseum. In: Bayerischer Heimatschutz. 22. Jg./1926. II. Halbjahr, S. 98
  • Häberle, Adolf: Die berühmten Ulmer Maserholzpfeifenköpfe in ihrer kultur- und wirtschaftsgeschichtlichen Bedeutung. Amberg 1950.
  • Levardy, Ferenc: Our Pipe Smoking Forebears. Velburg 1994.
  • Manger, Anton: Die berühmten Ulmer Maserholzpfeifen. Wollbach 1998.
  • Merkle, Wolfgang: Gewerbe und Handel der Stadt Ulm. Hohenheim 1988.
  • Morgenroth, Walter: Rund um den Tabak- Auktion Sammlung Haegeli, Auktionshaus Metz, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe: Götz 2000.
  • Osiander,W.: Ulm und sein Münster und seine Umgebung. Fremdenführer durch Ulm und Umgebung mit allen Sehenswürdigkeiten. Ulm 1900.
  • Ramazzotti, Eppe/Mamy, Bernhard: Pfeifen und Pfeifenraucher. Genf 1982.
  • Schaller, Peter: Zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte Ulms. Die Entwicklung der Ulmer
  • Sarrazin, Jenny/Petershagen, Henning: Schopper, Schiffer, Donaufischer. Begleitbuch zur Sonderausstellung im Ulmer Museum. Ulm 1997.
  • Specker, Hans-Eugen: Ulm Stadtgeschichte. Ulm 1977.

Referenzen

  1. Häberle: Ulmer; Manger: Ulmer
  2. Osiander: Ulm, p. 8.
  3. Häberle: Ulmer, P. 21. The term "sheet metal" means silver and tombac, a type of brass with a copper content of 70 to 90 percent.
  4. Häberle: Ulmer, p. 21.
  5. Merkle: Gewerbe, S. 174.
  6. Merkle p. 176/177
  7. Specker: Ulm, p. 169.
  8. Sarrazin / Petershagen: Schopper , P. 58.
  9. Ibid., P. 41.
  10. Häberle: Ulmer, p. 16. Each ship was about 20 m long and 4 m wide. Early 19th century. 50,000 quintals went down the Danube every year.
  11. Sarrazin / Petershagen: Schopper, p. 25, also name a "plate flipper" who buys the ship.
  12. Ibid., P. 15.
  13. Häberle: Ulmer, p. 24; Becker: Dunst, p. 56.
  14. address book 1894; the same. 1896 and the same. 1902.
  15. Address book of the city of Ulm from 1896, page 102, city archive Ulm
  16. Jugend number 43 dated October 24, 1903, page X
  17. Becker: Dunst, p. 56.
  18. Kind communication from Anton Manger, Wollbach.
  19. Today, briar wood from Erica Arborea is used in modern pipe production.
  20. Anonymous: Fabrication, p. 6
  21. Anonymous: Collecting
  22. Schwabenspiegel No. 22, 1928 p. 173
  23. Anonymous: Fabrication, p. 7; anonymous: pipe heads.
  24. Anonym: Fabrikation, S. 106.
  25. Cf. Buck: Ortschronik, p. 713
  26. Aschenbrenner: Ulmer, p. 9.
  27. Aschenbrenner, p.22
  28. Cf. on this, Häberle: Ulmer, pp. 24 and 35; in detail Levardy: Pipe, p. 143.
  29. The sample sheet is printed in Häberle p. 35
  30. Anonymous: traces.
  31. An original of this helmet is among others in the Army History Museum in Ingolstadt.
  32. The last example is shown at Ramazzotti / Mamy: Pfeifen, p. 6.
  33. Manger: Ulmer, p. 56
  34. Häberle: Ulmer, p. 25 f.
  35. Häberle p. 22
  36. Morgenroth p. 335; Häberle, p.25
  37. Merkle: Gewerbe, p. 176.
  38. Häberle: Ulmer, p. 25 f.
  39. Dieterich: Description, p. 153.
  40. Becker: family tree.
  41. A museum association founded in 1995 is dedicated to this forgotten trade, albeit with great difficulty because very few documents have survived. See also Manger: Ulmer, p. 96.
  42. Morgenroth, p. 327
  43. Kind advice from Anton Manger, Wollbach, who experienced this himself as a child before the Second World War.
  44. Merkle: Gewerbe, p. 177.
  45. Becker: Dunst, p. 55.
  46. Manger: Ulmer, p. 105
  47. Güthlein: Sammlung. Some of these pipes are available in the Feuchtwangen local history museum.
  48. Personally, the author is also skeptical because the shape of an Ulm block actually a hand flatterer is where the silver decorations tend to disturb. They are more aesthetically pleasing than comfortable on the hand.
  49. Kind note from Anton Manger, Wollbach.
  50. Anonymous: Die Fabrikation, pp.11-54