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For the sake of pipe making, I would call any lathe 9"x20" or larger to be full sized. This first number refers to the swing over the bed (or sometimes the tool carriage). This means it is possible for a 9" diameter work piece to swing over the bed, so the actual distance between the chuck center and the bed is actually slightly more than 4.5". The second number is the length of material that will fit between the chuck in the headstock, and the center in the tail stock. Many established pipe makers look for older lathes, such as those made by Atlas, Clausen, some older Sears models (these were all made by Clausen), and South Bend. The UK and the rest of Europe have many fine old lathes kicking around too (a little help here on desirable makes would be appreciated).
 
For the sake of pipe making, I would call any lathe 9"x20" or larger to be full sized. This first number refers to the swing over the bed (or sometimes the tool carriage). This means it is possible for a 9" diameter work piece to swing over the bed, so the actual distance between the chuck center and the bed is actually slightly more than 4.5". The second number is the length of material that will fit between the chuck in the headstock, and the center in the tail stock. Many established pipe makers look for older lathes, such as those made by Atlas, Clausen, some older Sears models (these were all made by Clausen), and South Bend. The UK and the rest of Europe have many fine old lathes kicking around too (a little help here on desirable makes would be appreciated).
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[[Image:9x20.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Harbor Freight 9x20]][[Image:chuck.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Chuck and pine test stummel]]For those not yet fortunate enough to find a quality older lathe, the new Chinese made 9" x 20" lathes are an affordable and workable option for many of us. Almost all the Chinese lathes are made in the same factory, and aside from the nameplate of the importer, the finish and accessories included, perform about the same. Popular brands include Jet, Grizzly, and Harbor Freight. While often functional, they all need to be dis-assembled, cleaned and re-assembled with good lubricants, and sometimes improved hardware and bearings.  
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[[Image:9x20.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Harbor Freight 9x20]][[Image:chuck.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Chuck and pine test stummel]]
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[[Image:disksanding_lathe.jpg|200px|thumb|left|Disk sanding set up]][[Image:buffing_lathe.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Buffing set up]]
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[[Image:spoonbit_lathe.jpg|200px|thumb|left|Custom Spoon Bit]][[Image:spoonbit_stummel_lathe.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Drilling by Hand w/spoon bit]]
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For those not yet fortunate enough to find a quality older lathe, the new Chinese made 9" x 20" lathes are an affordable and workable option for many of us. Almost all the Chinese lathes are made in the same factory, and aside from the nameplate of the importer, the finish and accessories included, perform about the same. Popular brands include Jet, Grizzly, and Harbor Freight. While often functional, they all need to be dis-assembled, cleaned and re-assembled with good lubricants, and sometimes improved hardware and bearings.  
    
In addition to being excellent for stems, many pipe makers also use metal lathes for stummel work. The tool carriage and cross slike can be used to rough in stummel shapes, while using it freehand, sort of like the technique used for drawing with an "Etch a Sketch" children's toy. It is also possible to set up a wood lathe style tool rest on a`metal lathe, which allows the use of wood lathe tools to slide along the work. Using a Jacobs chuck in the tail stock allows for very accurate boring of the chamber, mortise, and air hole, as well as facing the shank. A good quality, 9x20 or larger metal lathe, properly set up, can give one all the advantages of the metal lathe as well as most of those of a wood lathe.  
 
In addition to being excellent for stems, many pipe makers also use metal lathes for stummel work. The tool carriage and cross slike can be used to rough in stummel shapes, while using it freehand, sort of like the technique used for drawing with an "Etch a Sketch" children's toy. It is also possible to set up a wood lathe style tool rest on a`metal lathe, which allows the use of wood lathe tools to slide along the work. Using a Jacobs chuck in the tail stock allows for very accurate boring of the chamber, mortise, and air hole, as well as facing the shank. A good quality, 9x20 or larger metal lathe, properly set up, can give one all the advantages of the metal lathe as well as most of those of a wood lathe.  
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[[Image:disksanding_lathe.jpg|200px|thumb|left|Disk sanding set up]][[Image:buffing_lathe.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Buffing set up]]
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[[Image:spoonbit_lathe.jpg|200px|thumb|left|Custom Spoon Bit]][[Image:spoonbit_stummel_lathe.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Drilling by Hand w/spoon bit]]
   
The lathe pictured is from Harbor Freight. It has been disassembled, cleaned, and re-fit with improved hardware, and a home brewed chuck, fashioned from a Grizzly 6" 4-jaw independent chuck, and modified after the J.T. Cooke style chuck that several tool makers are making for stummels (this home brewed version works just as well, but sure is not as pretty!). The locating pins allow for precisely positioning the air hole relative to the tobacco chamber. For bent pipes, to sets of locating holes are used. Drill the mortise on the shank bend axis, reposition the block for the air whole, tobacco chamber axis, drill the air hole, then loosen the block slightly, pivot the block on the pins, and re-tighten it to perfectly align the chamber with the air hole. It's also a great tool for [[The Shape First]] method. For this method, the stummel is shaped prior to drilling and cannot be chucked, so the special bit is chucked into the headstock and the stummel is guided into the spinning bit.
 
The lathe pictured is from Harbor Freight. It has been disassembled, cleaned, and re-fit with improved hardware, and a home brewed chuck, fashioned from a Grizzly 6" 4-jaw independent chuck, and modified after the J.T. Cooke style chuck that several tool makers are making for stummels (this home brewed version works just as well, but sure is not as pretty!). The locating pins allow for precisely positioning the air hole relative to the tobacco chamber. For bent pipes, to sets of locating holes are used. Drill the mortise on the shank bend axis, reposition the block for the air whole, tobacco chamber axis, drill the air hole, then loosen the block slightly, pivot the block on the pins, and re-tighten it to perfectly align the chamber with the air hole. It's also a great tool for [[The Shape First]] method. For this method, the stummel is shaped prior to drilling and cannot be chucked, so the special bit is chucked into the headstock and the stummel is guided into the spinning bit.
  

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